عن المرأة : ولى زمان الثقب الصغير

ليلى (والدتي) عاشت في كنف عائلتها التي وفدت الى الموصل قادمة من إحدى قرى سنجار، وسكنت في (كاع البلاش) وهي حي صرائف، تقطنه عائلات تجاوزت على أرض عامة في منطقة الزنجلي غربي الموصل.

في ذلك الحي – وهنا أحدثكم عن بداية سبعينات القرن الماضي – جرت عملية انتقالية لوافدين من الريف “اجتماعيا وفكريا”، إذ كانوا ما زالوا غير قادرين على استيعاب البيئة الجديدة، لذا يبالغ الرجال في ضرب حُجب على النساء، خاصة الفتيات، بحكم العيش وسط خليط مجتمعي متنوع عشائريا، عكس القرية التي غالبا ما تتكون من عشيرة واحدة، ويتكتل الأقارب في السكن قرب بعضهم.

بينما كثير من الرجال إنخرط سريعا في مجتمع المدينة، قصات شعر (خنفس) وبنطلون موديل جارلص، وارتياد النوادي الليلة والبارات التي كانت منتشرة أنذاك في الموصل.

مراة موصلية في منزل تراثي – عدسة ميسر نصير

عبر ثقب صغير في باب الحوش الصغير الخاص بالمنزل المكون من غرفتين صغيرتين، والمسوّر بصفائح السمن وزيت الطبخ الفارغة، تتلصص ليلى على العالم، كلما سمعت جلبة في الشارع وغالبا الزغاريد وأصوات الأغاني التي تشير الى وجود موكب زفاف، هرعت لتراقب ما يجري من وراء فتحة يوفرها مصراع الباب، كيف يلبسون ويرقصون ويحتفلون، لكن شقيقها الذي يصغرها بسنتين، يحرص دائا على إغلاق الباب، لتنتقل الى الخطة ب فتلصق إحدى عينيها على الثقب الصغير، وكثيرا ما يغلق عليها هذا الثقف أيضا، عندما يقف متعمدا أمامه ليحرمها من رؤية أي شيء.

ثمة ثقب آخر كان يغلق أمامها، وهي تتفرج على أحد المسلسلات المصرية في وقت السهرة.

ينامون على السطح لعدم توفر مكيفات وقتذاك، ولأن جيرانهم لديهم تلفزيون صغير ينقلونه في الليل الى السطح للتفرج، تختلس النظر من وراء (الكُلّة) وهي قماش يضرب حول سرير العائلة الموضوع على السطح ليحجب الرؤية ويوفر خصوصية لأفراد العائلة في نومهم، الثقب الصغير الذي أحدثته لنفسها في الجهة المطلة على الجيران كثيرا ما يَعقده والدها أو شقيقها، ليمنعاها من التفرج على التلفزيون.

ليست ليلى وحدها من عاشت تحت جلابيب والدها وإخوتها وأعمامها وأخوالها، بل النسبة الكبيرة جدا من قريناتها اللائي عشن في مدينة الموصل، رغم الإنفتاج الكبير الذي حظيت به الحواضر المدنية الثلاثة في العراق (بغداد والموصل والبصرة).

مراة موصلية في محلة الساعة – عدسة ميسر نصير

بعد نحو 5 عقود، ما زال هناك من يحاول عبثا أن يغلق الثقب بكفيه، المفارقة أن الثقب الذي يوفر نافذة للفتيات الى العالم أصبح متعددا وواسعا جدا، هناك التلفاز والموبايل والأنترنت بما يقود إليه من مواقع ألكترونية وفيسبوك وتويتر وانستغرام وسناب جات وفايبر ووتس اب ويوتيوب وغيرها، هذا إذا افترضنا أسوأ الأحوال مثلا أن الأب والأشقاء يمنعون فتياتهم من إرتياد المدرسة والكلية.

أسوأ فترة في حياة المرأة الموصلية كانت ما بين 2003 و 2017، في هذه السنوات الـ 13 ضُرب النقاب عليهن وتم تقييدهن على نحو متطرف بسبب سيطرة الجماعات الارهابية وتحت تأثير المد الديني والقبلي.

وخلال سيطرة عصابات داعش الارهابية على المدينة، حزيران/يونية 2014 – تموز/ يوليو 2017، تحولت الموصل الى قندهار، لا يمكن لأي إمرأة صغيرة أو كبيرة الخروج من دون نقاب كامل، يجب تغطية جسدها من أعلى رأسها الى أخمص قدمهيا، وقد شهدت المدينة جرائم الرجم بالحجارة حتى الموت ضد النساء وخطف النساء الإيزيديات في سنجار وأغتصابهن وبيعهن كجواري! وهذه كانت ذروة اللا إنسانية والإنتهاكات ضد المرأة، كل هذا ونحن لم نتحدث عن معاناة النزوح والحرمان من أبسط الحقوق.

نساء في سوق الموصل اثناء سيطرة داعش – تصوير ريحان الموصلي

لحظة إلتقاط النفس كانت بعد استعادة القوات العراقية سيطرتها على الموصل، من الأيام الأولى ظهرت فتيات في نشاطات وفعاليات ومبادرات، ويبدو لي أن عددا كبيرا من الفتيات اللائي عشن في إقليم كردستان العراق أو المحافظات العراقية الاخرى وحتى في تركيا، وعدن الى الموصل بعد التحرير، أثبتن أنهن أجرأ على التصدي للمسؤوليات والمبادرة وكسر قيود المجتمع (التدين والعادات والتقاليد)، كما أن بعض الفتيات اللائي عشن في الموصل تحت حكم الخلافة كن حاضرات ومنهن من يقدن مشاريع مهمة الى جانب الشباب.

من يريدون إغلاق الكوة الواسعة جدا التي تتوفر الآن موجودون حاليا، قبل أيام أثاروا زوبعة اعتراضات على ماراثون للفتيات أرادت إحدى المنظمات تنظيمه، إنبرى عدد كبير من المتدينين والشباب لمهاجمة الماراثون، ووصفوا من يدعو اليه بأنه (قليل غيرة على عرضه)، المفارقة أن من بين الداعين شباب من الوسط الإعلامي وآخرون يصفون أنفسهم بالناشطين المدنيين.

“أنا ناشط مدني، لكني أعارض تنظيم ماراثون للفتيات في الموصل، لأنه معيب ومخالف لعادات وتقاليد المجتمع”، قال شاب في حوار معي. والدافع ليس دينيا بقدر ما هو دافع قبلي، بينما يسمح لنفسه أن يجالس ويخالط فتيات أخريات، ولا يقبل ذلك على أخته، أية أزدواجية هذه!

إن من يحاول أن يغلّق الكوات بكفيه، كمن يحاول تغطية الشمس بغربال، دعوهن يمارسن حياتهن وأزرعوا الثقة في نفوسهن، فلتخرج المرأة ولتسوق سيارة ولترتاد المدرسة والجامعة، ولتمارس الرياضة ولتعش حياتها، لا يمكن أبدا تعطيل نصف المجتمع، ستكون مدينة عرجاء وعوراء وكسيحة.

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