جواز السفر السوري الأغلى كلفة في العالم

 

تحقيق : كمال أوسكان وآدم الحسين

دفع سامي (اسم مستعار) 1200 دولار، للحصول على جواز سفر سوري عبر قنصلية بلاده في مدينة “إسطنبول” التركية، بعد ثلاث محاولات باءت بالفشل، وفي كل مرة، كان يتكبّد عناء السفر من “غازي عنتاب” إلى إسطنبول، مع تكاليف حجز فندق؛ علاوةً على تعرّضه لعمليات نصب من قبل أفراد يعملون في السمسرة.

تتوزع تكلفة جوازات السفر السورية بين رسم قنصلي يبلغ 825 دولاراً، إضافة إلى 400 دولار للسمسار، مقابل حجز الموعد لدى القنصلية، عدا مصاريف السفر والإقامة في إسطنبول 3 أيام، الفترة التي يحتاجها صدور الجواز المستعجل من القنصلية، والتي يمكن أن يتكبدها أي مواطن يعيش خارج مدينة إسطنبول.

دفع سامي هذه المبالغ كي لا يخسر وظيفته، وهو مستشار لإحدى المنظمات الدولية التي  تقدم الدعم للمجتمع السوري لتخفيف آثار الحرب عليه، ويتطلب العمل معها وجود وثائق رسمية للموظفين، حتى يتمكنوا من السفر، وحضور المؤتمرات، لكن الجواز الذي حصل عليه سامي بعد عناء وتكلفة باهظة صُنّف في 2019 على أنه “رابع أسوأ جواز سفر عالمياً”، وثاني أسوأ جواز عربياً بعد جواز السفر العراقي، وذلك بحسب تصنيف صادر عن مؤشرُ جوازات السفر العالمي (باسبورت إندكس Passport Index)، إذ بلغ عدد الدول التي لا تسمح للسوريين بدخول أراضيها من دون تأشيرة بحسب المؤشر 162 دولة، في حين أن الدول التي تسمح بدخول السوريين من دون “فيزا” 36 دولة، لكن 27 دولة من تلك الدول تفرض تأشيرة الدخول عند الوصول، و9 دول فقط تسمح لهم بالدخول من دون تأشيرة.

سورية دولة متعددة الحكومات والجوازات 

بدأت أزمة جوازات السفر السورية فعلياً مع بداية الحراك الشعبي في آذار/ مارس 2011، وإن كانت موجودة قبل ذلك. إذ كانت تتطلّب الكثير من الإجراءات الأمنية للحصول عليها؛ مثل الحصول على موافقة الأمن السياسي، الذي كان يحرم منها المعارضون السياسيون. هذه الأزمة تحولت إلى ظاهرة، بعد تدفق ألاف السوريين إلى دول الجوار، وخصوصاً تركيا، عبر الحدود البرية هرباً من المعارك والقصف في مناطق شمال سوريا، وسقوط معظم المعابر الحدودية تحت سيطرة المعارضة. ومن هنا ظهرت أزمة الجوازات لكل من خرج بشكل غير نظامي. استخدم النظام سلاح جوازات السفر كنوع من العقاب الجماعي للمعارضين السياسيين والنشطاء واللاجئين والعسكريين، بحرمانهم من الحصول على وثائق رسمية ومن ضمنها جوازات السفر، من أي جهة حكومية على خلفية الأزمة السورية. وكل من كان في السن القانونية للخدمة العسكرية الإلزامية، لا يمكنه الحصول على جواز سفر، إلا بعد مراجعة شعبة التجنيد، والحصول على موافقة منها تؤكد أنه ليس مطلوباً للخدمة العسكرية.

الطلب على جوازات السفر حاجة ملحة لكل سوري خارج البلاد، لكن الإجراءات المعقدة والموافقات الأمنية والسياسية ومراجعات شعب التجنيد، حرمت قسماً كبيراً من الحصول على هذه الوثائق عبر القنصليات السورية، وبذلك، أصبح الحصول على جواز السفر السوري خارج البلاد عبارة عن حلم لن يتمكّن أغلب السوريين من تحقيقه؛ فأخذ السوريون يبحثون عن سبل أخرى للحصول على جوازات السفر، وإن كانت مزوّرة، أو التوجّه إلى الائتلاف السوري المعارض مع بدء حكومته المشكلة في إسطنبول منح الجوازات البديلة التي أصدرتها أواخر عام 2014.

حكومة النظام من المنع إلى جني الأموال

شعر النظام بخطورة ما يحدث عندما أصدر الائتلاف الجوازات البديلة في آب/ أغسطس 2014، واعتبر هذه الخطوة انتقاصاً من سيادته، وبدأ العمل على جبهتين، الأولى قانونية تتعلّق بنشر أرقام الجوازات المزوّرة عبر الإنتربول الدولي في أيلول/ سبتمبر 2014، وأصدر قانون رقم 18 المتضمّن تعليمات منح جواز السفر في 2/11/2014 ونصَّ القانون الجديد على عقوبات رادعة لمن يخالف أحكامه.

وبحسب بعض مصادر وزارة الداخلية، فالقانون الجديد جاء ليحد من تزوير التأشيرات وجوازات السفر، بعدما انتشرت بشكل كبير في الظروف الراهنة التي تعيشها سوريا.

والثانية، تمثلت في سماح السلطات السورية لسفاراتها وبعثاتها الدبلوماسية بإصدار جوازات السفر وتجديدها، للسوريين المقيمين في الخارج، من دون مراجعة الأجهزة الأمنية في دمشق… وذلك في 21 نيسان/ أربريل 2015 وفق قرار صادر عن وزارة الخارجية والمغتربين إلى قنصلياتها وبعثاتها. ويتضمن نص القرار “رفع الأجور القنصلية المتعلقة بمنح الجوازات الجديدة للسوريين المقيمين في الخارج إلى 400 دولار، أو ما يعادلها باليورو”. كما تم “وضع رسم جديد للجوازات المراد تجديدها، وقدره 200 دولار” في خطوة لقطع الطريق أمام الائتلاف وجوازاته.

ومن ثم أتبعه بقرار آخر في 29/3/2017 ينص على تحديد الرسم القنصلي لمنح جواز أو وثيقة سفر للسوريين، بشكل فوري ومستعجل بمبلغ 800 دولار و300 دولار وفق نظام الدور (الحجز).

يوضح المحامي السوري رامي عسّاف المقيم في مدينة غازي عنتاب التركية، ويتابع القضايا القانونية للسوريين في تركيا، أن “مغادرة الأراضي السورية من دون اتباع الإجراءات الرسمية من خلال المنافذ الرئيسة، يجعل صاحب هذه المخالفة الجنائية مرتكباً لجنحة، ويستطيع القضاء السوري أن يعاقبه، لكن عندما تتجاوز أعداد المخالفين الملايين، لا أعتقد أن القضاء يستطيع إقامة كل هذه الدعاوى، لكنها تبقى ورقة يضغط فيها على كل من غادر البلاد بصفة غير مشروعة، وهذه الجنحة لها حد أعلى من السجن وحد أدنى، والقاضي يمكنه استبدال عقوبة السجن بغرامة مالية يتم دفعها”.

ومع تفاقم أزمة النظام السوري المالية، اتخذ إجراءات إضافية في هذا السياق، للحصول على المزيد من الأموال عبر المواطنين السوريين في الخارج، من ضمنها تقليل مدّة جواز السفر لسنتين، بعدما كانت 6 سنوات غير قابلة للتجديد، وبذلك يحصل المواطن السوري على جواز  سفر مدته الفعلية أقل من سنتين، ويتم احتساب المدة من بدء تقديم الطلب، حيث يتأخر صدور الجواز قرابة 3 أشهر بالنسبة إلى الطلبات العادية غير المستعجلة، ويتوجب تقديم طلب ضمن الأشهر الستة الأخيرة  قبل انتهاء الجواز، على رغم من المبالغ الطائلة التي تُدفَع.

ويعتبر عسّاف أن رفع الرسوم من قبل حكومة دمشق هو “عمل من أعمال السيادة، ولها كامل الحرية أن تحدد بأي عملة أيضاً… وما ساهم في تشجيع النظام على ذلك، هو اشتراط بعض الدول للاعتراف بهذه الوثائق أن تكون مصدّقة من الخارجية السورية، وهذا ما دفع المواطنين السوريين إلى استصدار الجوازات من القنصليات السورية، بذلك ضرب النظام عصفورين بحجر واحد. الأول مالي، والثاني أمني سيادي، من خلال اعتراف كل من غادر الأراضي السورية بشكل غير قانوني بعد مراجعة السفارات والقنصليات السورية وإعطاء كامل المعلومات عنه للحصول على جواز السفر”

ترافق هذه القفزة الكبيرة في رسوم الجوازات تزايد أعداد طالبي الجوازات بشكل خاص بعد تزايد أعداد اللاجئين السوريين في دول الجوار، نتيجة الحرب المستمرة في سوريا، ومع تعرض كثر من السوريين للتوقيف في المطارات بسبب الجوازات المزورة، أو جوازات الائتلاف التي كانوا يحملونها. ويكفي أن تمر بالقنصلية السورية في إسطنبول لترى طوابير السوريين على أبوابها ينتظرون الحصول على الجوازات، وهذا ما شاهدناه أمام القنصلية في 22 نيسان 2017 حين رافقنا سامي، في محاولته الثالثة للحصول على جواز سفر.

اتخذ النظام السوري هذه التدابير لحرمان الحكومة الموقّتة من المكاسب المالية التي قد تجنيها، وتحويل تلك الأموال إلى خزينة الدولة. ويذكر (مجلس الشعب السوري) بأن القرار يأتي بهدف “تسهيل أمور المواطنين في الخارج، وتجنيبهم اللجوء إلى السماسرة ومعقبي المعاملات، والسرعة في إنجاز طلباتهم”، لكن الهدف المخفي لهذا القرار هو تأمين إيرادات إضافية لخزينة الدولة العامة؛ إذ كشفت إحصاءات الإدارة العامة للهجرة والجوازات في سوريا أن عدد طلبات جواز السفر عام 2015، بلغت نحو مليون طلب من داخل سوريا وخارجها، بمعدل 5 آلاف طلب يومياً.

يقول الدكتور عماد الدين المصبح وهو أكاديمي سوري معارض وأستاذ مشارك بكلية الاقتصاد والإدارة‏ لدى ‏جامعة القصيم إن “المبَالِغ التي حصل عليها النظام جراء رفعه الرسوم على الجوازات هي بلا شك أرقام كبيرة جداً. وعزز النظام بهذه المبالغ الضحمة الأرصدة “الدولارية” في البنك المركزي حفاظاً على الليرة السورية، ونحن نعلم أن الليرة تمثل آخر حصون النظام”.

وفي هذا الإطار، يوضح الدكتور أحمد يوسف، وهو أكاديمي سوري وخبير اقتصادي، مسألة المبالغ المالية الكبيرة التي تدخل إلى خزينة الدولة بقوله “إن الجوازات التي تستصدرها الحكومة السورية تقدّر بمليون جواز سفر سنوياً، ويتم استصدار معظمها في الخارج من طريق القنصليات السورية، وذلك نظراً إلى الحاجة الماسة لها من قبل المغتربين أو الذين غادروا البلد من دون وثائق، أو الذين انتهت المدة القانونية لجوازاتهم. ويحقق النظام من عملية الاستصدار إيراداً سنوياً لا يقل عن 500 مليون دولار، ما يشكل رافداً قوياً لخزانة الدولة العامة في الظروف الراهنة، التي تتميز بتوقف شبه تام لآلة الإنتاج عن العمل”.

ويؤكد اليوسف استغلال النظام حاجة المواطنين؛ إذ تصدّر الجواز السوري قائمة أغلى جوازات السفر في العالم، وأصبح رسم الحصول على الجواز المستعجل 800 دولار، في الوقت الذي لا تتجاوز كلفة تأمين الجواز وتقديمه للمواطن أكثر من خمسة دولارات”.

وفي مقارنة بسيطة بين كلفة جواز السفر السوري وجواز السفر الأميركي، نجد الفارق الكبير في التكلفة؛ إذ لا تتجاوز تكلفة الحصول على جواز السفر الأميركي في الخارج من قنصليات وسفارات الولايات المتحدة 35 دولاراً، بحسب التعليمات المنشورة على موقع سفارة الولايات المتحدة الأميركية وقنصليتها في مصر.

كيف أصبح واقع الحال؟

حاولنا رصد عملية الحصول على جواز السفر عبر القنصلية السورية في إسطنبول، بعدما تمكّن سامي من الحصول على دور من طريق أحد السماسرة. يقول سامي: “هذه المرة الثالثة التي أحجز فيها الدور للحصول على جواز سفر من القنصلية. في المرة الأولى تعرضت لعملية احتيال من قبل ذلك السمسار، وخسرت 200 دولار ومنعت من دخول القنصلية”.

دفع سامي مبلغ 825 دولاراً رسماً قنصلياً في 20/3/2017، إضافة إلى 400 دولار للسمسار مقابل حجز الموعد، وغيرها من مصاريف السفر والتي تجاوزت 200 دولار، تشمل بطاقة سفر من مدينة غازي عنتاب إلى اسطنبول وبالعكس، إضافة إلى تكاليف الإقامة في الفندق ثلاثة أيام؛ وبذلك تكون قد وصلت كلفة الجواز إلى 1400 دولار.

كان حجز الموعد يتم إلكترونياً، على موقع القنصلية السورية، إلا إنه تم توقيف ذلك نهائياً، لتفتح الأبواب أمام السماسرة وشبكات الاحتيال التي تنشط على مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي وتنشر إعلانات عن “خدماتها”. وكثيراً ما يقع السوريون ضحية تلك الشبكات كما حدث مع هالة (اسم مستعار) وأختها التي قدمت بصحبتها من مدينة قزلتبه في ولاية ماردين إلى إسطنبول بناءً على موعد تم حجزه، عبر أحد مكاتب السماسرة هناك.

على باب القنصلية أخبرها الموظف أن الموعد غير مثبت ومزيف؛ فاتصلت هالة بالسمسار مطالبة إياه بإعادة المبلغ الذي دفعته وهو 200 دولار.

تحدثنا إلى هالة وأختها، اللتين كانتا تريدان الحصول على جوازي سفر من أجل الالتحاق بأسرتهما في إحدى الدول الأوروبية واضطرتا لاستدانة المبلغ من الأقارب، فالكلفة تفوق قدرة معظم السوريين المقيمين في تركيا.

رصد فريق التحقيق أمام القنصلية السورية في 20/3/2017 عدداً من السماسرة، ومعظمهم منتدبون من المكاتب المعتمدة لدى القنصلية. وحدهم يستطيعون حجز المواعيد بالاتفاق مع موظفي القنصلية، ليتقاسموا المبلغ  التي تم تحديدها لأي موعد حجز، وهو 400 دولار.

هذه المبالغ الكبيرة التي تقدّر بنصف قيمة الرسم القنصلي للدور المستعجل، يضطر المواطنون إلى تأمينها حتى يتمكنوا من الوصول إلى مكاتب موظفي القنصلية، لتقديم أوراق الحصول على جواز السفر، والتي هي حق من حقوقهم على الدولة منحهم إياها من دون مقابل، ما يجبر كثيرين ممن لا يستطيعون دفع هذه المبالغ للحصول على جواز سفر نظامي، التوجه  للحصول إلى ما بات يعرف بجوازات الائتلاف مع علمهم أنها مزوّرة، على أمل أن يتمكنوا من تسيير بعض أمورهم.

لعبة القنصلية ومكاتب والسمسرة لحجز الدور

تم إنشاء تطبيق في موقع القنصلية لحجز الدور إلكترونياً، لقطع الطريق أمام استغلال الموظفين والسماسرة؛ غير أن ما يحدث اليوم حوّل الحجز الالكتروني إلى طريقة جديدة للاستغلال، ويظهر ذلك بشكل واضح بمجرد دخول أي شخص إلى موقع القنصلية لحجز الدور، يجد السيستم- النظام مغلقاً، أو لا يستجيب. في المقابل، تتمكن مكاتب السمسرة من منح موعد بكل سهولة، وهذه هي لعبة القنصلية ومكاتب السمسرة. فهناك اتفاق مسبق بين الطرفين على فتح “السيستم” وتشغيله في مواعيد محددة، يتم من خلالها تسجيل أسماء كل الأشخاص الذين يطلبون الدور عبر مكاتب السمسرة، ويتم إرسال نسخة من تلك الأسماء إلى الموظفين كي تتم مقارنتها مع الأسماء المسجلة للدور عبر “السيستم”، وبذلك يتم رفض أي اسم سجّل إلكترونياً ولم يكن موجوداً في القائمة التي قُدّمت لموظفي القنصلية من مكاتب السمسرة المعتمدة.

هذا ما أكده أحد مكاتب السمسرة في إسطنبول، بعدما تواصلنا معه للاستفسار عما يحدث. يقول أحمد وهو موظف في المكتب، “مكتبنا يشتري الدور من شبكة ضيقة مرتبطة بالقنصلية، وندفع لهم عن كل دور 350 دولاراً بشكل مسبق، وأي اسم أو رقم دور لا يتم عن طريق هذه الشبكة الضيقة وإن لم يكن قد دفع المبلغ المطلوب لا يقبل من القنصلية” فالأسماء التي دفعت مسبقاً عبر المكاتب، موجودة لدى موظفي القنصلية.

ويوضح أحمد أن حالات الاحتيال تحدث من قبل بعض السماسرة أو مكاتب تعمل في مجال تسيير المعاملات، لأن هؤلاء يعتمدون على الحجز الإلكتروني أثناء فتح “السيستم فقط، وهذا غير كاف لحجز الدور بشكل نظامي، إن لم يكن هناك تنسيق مع موظفي القنصلية، والدفع لهم مسبقاً من قبل السمسار عن كل اسم؛ لذا يتفاجأ مقدّم الطلب حين يأتي إلى القنصلية على أساس الدور المحجوز له، بعدم وجود دور يخصّه، لأن الموظفين يعرفون مسبقاً الأسماء التي دفعت المبلغ المتّفق عليه”.

وعن زيادة الطلب على الجوازات يقول أحمد “المسألة مرتبطة بالاعتماد، فالدولة التركية لم تعد تعتمد إلا الجوازات الصادرة عن النظام وبتصديق حصري من القنصلية في إسطنبول”. وبذلك ازداد الطلب على الجوازات الصادرة عن قنصليات النظام، إذ يحتاجها كل من يقيم في تركيا للسفر أو للحصول على إقامة.

انجز هذا التحقيق من قبل الشبكة العراقية للصحافة الاستقصائية (نيريج) وتنشره المنصة بالتعاون مع الشبكة

 

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