“جبل سنام” في البصرة يرتاده السياح وتنسج حوله الحكايات

المنصة – أحمد طه حاجو

إلى الجنوب الغربي من محافظة البصرة، ومع امتداد الأرض المنبسطة ، وفي ناحية صفوان التي تبعد قرابة (40 كلم ) عن مركز المحافظة، ينكسر الأفق فجأة بمرتفع مفاجئ لا يعلم الناظر كيف وجد قبالته في ذلك الامتداد الصحراوي، أنه جبل سنام.
أهل صفوان الناحية التي تحاذي الحدود العراقية – الكويتية ويقع فيها الجبل يعتاشون على زراعة الطماطم والخضار الأخرى معتمدين على الآبار، وبإمكانهم تشخيص أي ضيف يزور المدينة من خلال سيارته وملبسه ولهجته، إذ إن لهجتهم تقترب من لهجة سكان الخليج العربي.
ويقف جبل سنام – والتسمية اخذت من سنام الجمل – في تلك البريّة النائية مثيرا التساؤلات عن سبب وجوده في منطقة صحراوية تخلو من أي تضاريس جبلية، فمن خلال حجمه وضخامته يوحي للناظر بأنه ليس تلا أوانه تكوّن نتيجة مؤثرات مناخية، بل انه مكوّن من حجارة صلدة وهو ما يثير الاستغراب.
وتقدر مساحة جبل سنام بـ (1700 متر) طولا و( 1200 متر) عرضا و(152 متر) ارتفاعا، كما انه يحتوي على (64 ) وادٍ تشكلت بفعل الأمطار. ويتحدث الحاج فرحان الصرايفي عن العديد من القصص والأساطير الخيالية التي نسجت حول الجبل.
والصرايفي من أقدم سكنة ناحية صفوان وله اطلاع ومعرفة وافية بالناحية وجغرافيتها وسكانها، ويقول لمراسل ” المنصة” عن تلك المرويات ” يتداول الناس قصصا استقوها من اسلافهم حول الجبل بأن الأرواح تسكنه وكذلك نوعا من الجن، ويروي أصحاب المعامل الذين يأخذون الحجر من الجبل أنهم عند عودتهم إلى المكان نفسه في اليوم التالي يجدون الجبل لم ينقص منه شيء وأن ما أخذوه من حجر عاد مجددا”.
وعلل ذلك بان هناك سوء فهم إذ توجد مقالع للرمل بجوار الجبل وقد يتوهم الناس بان السيارات التي تنقل الرمل تكون قادمة بحمولتها من الجبل.
أم عبد الله وهي امرأة خمسينية من أهالي صفوان تذهب مع عائلتها كل عام إلى الجبل ويعتلون سفوح الجبل للسياحة والبحث عن بعض المزروعات الطبيعية التي تنبت هناك بعد تساقط الأمطار مثل ( الكمأ والفقع ).
وتقول لمراسل ” المنصة” حول تجربتها مع المكان “في احدى المرات سمعت صوت لطفل يبكي وقد أثار ذلك الذعر بيننا وهربت أنا وأفراد اسرتي من الجبل، والأمر يتكرر مع بعض أفراد عائلتي وأخوتي الذين يذهبون إلى المكان في أوقات مختلفة من السنة فأنهم يسمعون أصواتا غريبة تتنوع بين أصوات الأطفال وكذلك يتعرضون للضرب بالحجارة من جهة مجهولة”.

ويروي الأهالي حكاية قديمة عن أن جبل سنام عشق جبلة انثى اسمها طميّة تقع في الجزيرة العربية جنوب منطقة عقلة الصقور، وان الاثنين زعلا على جماعتهم من جبال الحجاز فتحركا من الغرب الى الشرق، ولما وصلا الى نجد توقفت طمية عن المسير ورفضت مواصلة السير الى الشرق على الرغم من الحاح عشيقها سنام، واخيراً زعل سنام على حبيبته وواصل المسير لوحده الى الشرق.
وتشير الأسطورة ان سنام لما وصل الى موقعه الحالي في ناحية صفوان غرب قضاء الزبير تذكر حبيبة قلبه فالتفت الى الوراء لعله يراها فانكسرت رقبته وثبت في مكانه الحالي!
الدكتور واثق غازي عبد النبي اختصاص جيولوجيا تركيبية وعلم زلازل وهو تدريسي في جامعة البصرة يعزو نشأة الجبل لعوامل جيولوجية ويرجح أن سبب تكونه في هذا المكان هو ان هذه المنطقة منخفضة وتحتوي على أملاح فبسبب اجتماع هذه العوامل أدت إلى ترسب الأملاح بكميات كبيرة ونتيجة الحرارة وباقي العوامل الطبيعية أدت إلى تصلبها وتجمع التكلسات الرملية والترابية والحجرية وبفعل الزمن تكون هذا الجبل في هذا الأرض المستوية، ويكون الجزء الظاهر من جبل سنام الحالي على شكل قبعة لشخص وباقي الجسد مدفون على عمق يبلغ ( 6 كم ) تقريبا”.
ويضيف “يتكون الجبل من العديد من أنواع الأحجار والصخور أبرزها هي صخور الحجر الجيري والكولماي وقليل من الهالاي والجبس، والجبل في حالة نمو وارتفاع مستمرين نتيجة تحرك الأملاح التي يطفو عليها لكن نموه يبلغ ( 2 ملم ) في السنة وهذه النسبة نتيجة دراسات وإحصائيات قمنا بها في جامعة البصرة”.
عبد النبي يقول أن من الأخطاء الكبيرة التي اقترفها البريطانيون عام 1914 عندما استخدموا الجبل كمقلع إذ اخذوا منه الكثير من الأحجار والمعادن واستخدموها لرصف الطرق ويضيف “يحتوي الجبل على نوعية من الجس على درجة عالية من النقاوة تصل إلى تسعين في المائة ويمكن استخدامها في مادة الجس الطبي المستخدم في تجبير الكسور”.
دائرة السياحة في البصرة رفعت طلبا عام 2016 من اجل أن يكون جبل سنام محمية سياحية ووضعوا دراسة حول كيفية استثماره سياحيا ورفع الأنقاض وبقايا المخلفات الحربية في الجهة الغربية منه وتشييد متحف والاهتمام بالنباتات النادرة التي تعيش هناك بسبب الملوحة العالية التي تحتويها صخوره.
ويقول الشاب حمدان بدر الذي يعمل في احدى المزارع القريبة من جبل سنام بان العائلات تأتي إلى الجبل من أواخر شهر شباط إلى نهاية شهر آذار من كل عام للسياحة وقضاء الوقت وان ارتفاع الجبل وجمال المناظر البريّة الممتدة من حوله يجعله مكانا رائعا للنزهة، لكن الجهات السياحية غير مكترثة بموقعه”.
جبل سنام الذي نسجت حوله الحكايات اتخذته بعض القطعات العسكرية مقرا لها، وتتوسط قمته نقطة تفتيش عسكرية وبرج مراقبة، في حين تتناثر إلى جواره معامل أهلية لصناعة الجبس وبعض مواد البناء التي تعتمد في عملها على الخامات الموجودة فيه.

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