يتكلمون لغة خاصة ويعتزلون المجتمع… غجر بلباس البدو اقلية منسية في المثنى

المنصة – بشير البشير

وسط بادية محافظة المثنى الجنوبية يستقر مجموعة من البدو الذين تعود جذورهم الى الغجر إذ اعتزلوا المجتمع السماوي منذ عشرات السنين هربا من اللوثة التي يشعون بها من كلام الاهالي وهم لا يمتلكون الجنسية العراقية ويعتاشون حسب اصول البداوة القديمة التي قد لا نراها إلا في القصص الدارمية.

لا يختلط هؤلاء البدو بالناس ويعيشون حياة عزلة تامة عن المجتمع وعن التكنلوجيا منذ اجيال فهم لا يمتلكون اجهزة موبايل ولا يعرفون شيئا عن التلفاز وبرامجه، ولا يدينون باي دين ويخشى الكثيرون من الصيادين والاهالي الاقتراب منهم لكن بعضهم اعتاد على ملاقاتهم في رحلات الصيد الفصلية ومنهم الباحث في اصول الانساب حسام العاقولي.

يقول العاقولي ان هذه الاقلية تتنقل من منطقة الى اخرى وسط صحراء السماوة بالقرب من الحدود العراقية – السعودية، ويتتحدثون لغة غريبة لا يفهمها احد فضلا عن ملابسهم التي لا تتواجد بالاسواق وهي من صنع ايديهم، وهم في الغالب يرتدون الزي البدوي الذي يختلط بطراز ملابس الغجر ويعيشون حياة البساطة التي يعيشها البدو في الصحراء ويحيكون ملابسهم بانفسهم ويخيطونها بعد صباغتها ولا يزورون الاسواق العامة من اجل تبضع الملابس والطعام.

اما النساء فيستخدمن اكسسوارات خاصة مصنوعة من الالمنيوم تصدر اصواتا خاصة اثناء السير فيما ينتشر وشما خاصا على وجوههن وايديهن وسيقانهن ترسمه سيدات مسنات يستخدمن فيه رماد الحطب وابر الخياطة فتتلون الاجساد برسوم خاصة ناتجة عن اختلاط االدم الناتج عن الوخز بالابرة بالرماد الناتج عن الحطب لينتج احدى درجات اللون الازرق الغامق.
وبحسب العاقولي تتوشم النساء بعلامات ورسوم محددة ابرزها شكل الهلال والنجمة الذي تستخدمه معظم الواشمات لتزيين اجساد النساء فضلا عن وشم ختم القبيلة التي ينتمين اليها كدلالة لعائدية المرأة الى قبيلة او عائلة محددة.

العاقولي لديه علاقات جيدة بالعديد من العائلات هناك وتناول معهم الطعام مرارا وهو الرجل الوحيد من بين الصيادين الذي يملك مثل تلك العلاقات معهم فيما يتجنبهم باقي الصيادون وينعتونهم بغجر البادية ويقول “يتناول يتناول هؤلاء الغجر حليب الأغنام حصرًا كونه سريع الهضم مع رغيف طازج ويكون عند بزوغ الشمس كوجبة للافطار ومن لا يتناول في هذا الوقت يعتبر مريضًا ويتم علاجه، اما الغداء فيتناولون الأرزمع خمير حليب الماشية، اما العشاء فعادة ما يكون حساء اللحم مع الخبز، وهم يأكلون الخبز طازجًا ولا كلون الخبز البارد”.

ينتقل البدو الغجر بين الحين والاخر بين البوادي باحثين عن طعامهم وطعام اغنامهم غير مكترثين لما قد يحصل لهم وبعضهم لقى حتفه بسبب انفجار الالغام المنتشرة في بادية المثنى منذ حرب عام 1990، لكن مستقرهم الاساسي يكمن في المنطقة الواقعة قرب الحدود السعودية العراقية، وينتقلون في الصيف الى المراعي في شمال العراق هربًا من لهيب الشمس في صحراء السماوة”.

واشارت دراسة بحثية اجراها الباحث في شؤون الانساب والقبائل رائد العامري الى ان اصول هولاء البدو الرحل تعود الى الغجر وانهم انتقلوا الى البوادي بعيدا عن الاحتكاك بالبشر بسبب تعرضهم للتنمر من قبل المجتمع واتهامهم بالسمعة السيئة فاضطروا لهجر المجتمع لعدم احترامه لهم”.
ويضيف العامري ان”هؤلاء البدو هم من المجموعات البشرية التي حاولت الهروب من كوابيس الصورة النمطية التي تحملها ذهنية البشر ضدهم والتي طبعت بصماتها في الخيال الشعبي فراحت تبحث عن وسط مناسب تعيش فيه فاختاروا العزلة”.

ويؤكد انهم “يتحدثون لغة غجرية خاصة بهم وان تلك اللغة هي جزء من هويتهم الضائعة لكنهم يتمسكون بها رغم تعرضها للاندثار إذ تمتد جذورهم الى اواسط اسيا وهذا ما يفسر وجود لغة خاصة بهم يتداولونها بعيداً عن رقابة المجتمع واعتزازا منهم بجذورهم”.

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