صحفيات كردستان: رغبة في تغطية الحروب تكبحها المؤسسات الاعلامية والعائلات

حلبجة – رنكين سلام

 

ترغب بعض الصحافيات في كوردستان في لعب دور في تغطية أخبار الحرب مثل الصحافيين الرجال إلا أن صعوبة العمل في الجبهات ورفض بعض المؤسسات ايفادهن الى مناطق الخطر وأسباب أخرى كثيرة تحول دون تحقيق رغبتهن.

 

روبار احمد صحافية في كوردستان وقد عملت في مؤسسة اعلامية بارزة، ولكن عندما طلبت المشاركة في تغطية أخبار الحرب مثل زملائها الشباب ولم يسمح لها بذلك، وبعد مدة تركت القناة التي كانت تعمل بها وبعد فترة بدأت العمل كمراسلة في قناة كوردية أخرى لكن الحرب كانت قد انتهت بتحلارير الموصل والمدن الاخرى ولم تعد تستطيع ان تشارك في تغطيتها.

 

مدير المراسلين في القناة التي كانت تعمل بها كان اول من وقف بوجهها حينما قررت ان تذهب لتغطية اخبار الحرب على داعش في كركوك والموصل وبرر لها ذلك الرفض بأنه يخشى عليها من التعرض للاختطاف كما ان النساء ضعيفات امام الحروب ويجب ان لا يتواجدن في الجبهات.

 

روبار التي تبلغ من العمر (34 عاما) تتحدث عن رغبتها في العمل كمراسلة حربية بشغف كبير وتقول: “كنت أرغب في الذهاب إلى جبهات القتال للتغطية، وكنت متأكدة من قدرتي على ذلك، ولكن المسؤولين في القناة التي كنت أعمل فيها لم يسمحوا لي بذلك لكوني انثى”.

 

وتضيف: “في الحقيقة أعتقد أن العمل الصحافي في جبهات القتال أمر صعب، ولكن ذلك لا يعني أنه خارج قدرة النساء، ولو سمحوا لي بالذهاب ربما غطيت الاحداث هناك بشكل افضل من زملائي  لانني املك طاقة اثق بها واستطيع ان اعمل الى ساعات متأخرة في الليل لكن الامر انتهى بحرماني من الذهاب الى الجبهة ولو سنحت لي الفرصة مجددا للمشاركة في تغطية اية حرب او احداث فلن اتردد”.

 

كالي امين صحافية عملت في مجال تغطية اخبار الحرب، وكلما حملت الكاميرا الخاصة بها تتذكر اللحظات التي كانت تسجل فيها مشاهد الحرب الشرسة والتي لازالت عالقة في ذهنها وهي تتحدث عن تغطيات الحرب باستمرار مع زملائها، فهي لن تنسى تلك الايام التي عاشت فيها مغامرة مختلفة لا تستطيع جميع زميلاتها ان تعشها، فهي واحدة من صحفيات قلائل سمحت لهن قنواتم بتغطية الحروب.

 

عملت الصحفية المغامرة في موقع (PUK media)، وشاركت في تغطية معظم المعارك في كركوك والموصل وعفرين وكوباني وقاميشلو ومنبج من أجل نقل الأخبار والمعلومات، ونقلت للموقع الذي تعمل فيه احداثا هامة وتحركات مختلفة للجيش اثناء معارك تحرير تلك المدن من قبضة داعش.

 

وتتحدث كالي عن ذهابها لجبهات القتال قائلة: “في البداية كنت أشعرأنه لا توجد لدينا صحافيات يغطين أخبار جبهات القتال، لذلك قررت الذهاب للجبهات للتغطية، وعند وصولي شعرت أن الأمر ليس بالهيّن، لأن ظهوري من قبل كان كمراسلة في الشارع يختلف عن عملي في تغطية الحروب، فند ذهابي إلى الجبهات اضطررت إلى حمل الكاميرا بنفسي والتقاط الصور الصحافية أيضاً”.

 

كانت تغطية جبهات القتال بالنسبة لكالي أكثر صعوبة لأنها لم تكن إعلامية متخصصة بالحرب وقد ظهرت قبل ذلك كمراسلة، ونظراً لعدم استعداد احد من المصورين للذهاب معها إلى جبهات القتال اضطرّت للعمل كمصورة أيضاً ما كان أمرا صعباً بالنسبة لصحافية لم تمتهن التصوير من قبل، والقيام بدورين معا كان بسبب رفض الزملاء المصورين مرافقتي خوفا من الاحداث والمفاجآت التي يتعرض لها الصحافيون اثناء القتال.

 

تقول كالي: “في الحقيقة إن تغطية جبهات القتال بالنسبة للمرأة أكثر خطورة، لأنك كثيراً ما تتعرض للاعتقال والانهاك الجسدي، إذ تعرضت للاعتقال في معركة الموصل في “كوكجلي” لمدة ثمان ساعات، صحيح أن الاعتقال وما كنت أشاهده من مشاهد في جبهات القتال كان أليماً إلا أن الحرب كانت تجربة جديدة بالنسبة لي”.

 

وترى كالي أن المشكلات الاجتماعية تعترض طريق النساء أكثر عند اتخاذهن قرار تغطية الحروب وتقول: “عندما علمت والدتي أنني ذاهبة إلى الجبهات اخبرتني انها غير مستعدة لرعاية طفلتي لكي تجبرني على تغيير رأيي وعدم الذهاب، الى هناك إلا أن حماتي تكفلت بذلك”.

 

وحول العقبات التي تعترض الصحافيات في نقل أخبار جبهات القتال، يقول دياري محمد مدير مركز ميترو للدفاع عن حقوق الصحافيين: “لم تسجل لدينا حتى الآن أي شكوى حول منع تغطية أخبار جبهات القتال، إلا أننا نشعر بهذا الفراغ بوضوح وقد تحدثنا خلال اجتماعاتنا مع القنوات الاعلامية عن ضرورة السماح للنساء الصحافيات المشاركة في تغطية أخبار الحرب، لأننا نرى أن النساء متمكنات وقد قدمن ضحايا في سبيل ذلك منهن شفاء كردي التي لقيت حتفها في انفجار لغم عام 2017 وكانت تعمل لصالح قناة روداو ودنيز فرات التي خطفها الموت اثناء تغطيتها لهجوم تنظيم داعش على مخيم رستم جودي في منطقة مخكور عام 2014.

 

أما نقابة صحفيي كوردستان فبالرغم من عدم امتلاكها إحصاءً حول منع المؤسسات للصحفيات من تغطية الحروب والمناطق الساخنة، فإن نزاكت حمه سعيد سكرتيرة لجنة الدفاع عن حقوق الصحافيين في نقابة صحفيي كردستان قالت “إن سبب منع مشاركة النساء في تغطية الحروب يعود إلى أسلوب عمل القناة وثقافة ونظرة المجتمع لعمل النساء في الاعلام وكذلك إلى ضعف القنوات في تخريج صحافيين حربيين”.

 

معالجة قضية امتناع القنوات عن زج الصحفيات في تغطية الحروب قد لا يكون لاسباب جندرية دائما فهناك قنوات لا تمانع في ارسال الصحفيات الى جبهات القتال لكن المشكلة تكمن في خشية المسؤولين في تلك القنوات على حياة الصحفيات لا سيما وانهن يفتقرن الى الخبرة في تغطية مواضيع الحروب وهذا ماقد يعرضهن للمخاطر.

 

وتقترح حمه سعيد فتح اقسام في كليات ومعاهد الاعلام في اقليم كردستان لاقسام خاصة بـ”صحافة الحروب” يتم من خلالها اعداد صحفيين وصحفيات حربيين لديهم القدرة على تغطية الحروب مع اتخاذ جميع تدابير السلامة اثناء توجدهم او توجدهن في الميدان”.

 

وكشفت الحرب الاخيرة في العراق على داعش ضعف واضح في جانب السلامة المهنية للصحفيين والصحفيات الذين غطوا الحرب مما ادى الى فقدان عدد منهم لحياتهم اثناء التغطية او مرافقة الجيش في تقدمه باتجاه الموصل

 

ولا تمانع بعض القنوات من زج النساء الصحفيات في مجال الصحافة الحربية وتغطية النزاعات لكنها قد لا تسمح لها بالبقاء مدة طويلة حفاظا على سلامتها وتقول غمكين محمد كريم مسؤولة قسم المراسلين في قناة (إن آر تي) إن القناة التي تعمل فيها لم تمنع مشاركة النساء من تغطية مناطق النزاع او المواجهات.

 

وتضيف “لقد شاركت اثنتان من مراسلاتنا في تغطية الحرب ضد داعش والهجمات التي تعرض لها اقليم كردستان من التنظيم المتشدد إلا أن مشاركتهما كانت لمدة يوم واحد ذهبتا فيه إلى الجبهات ثم عادتا بعد التغطية، ولعلمنا ان الحرب ستطول وان المراسلين يجب ان يتواجدوا في جبهات القتال لايام كنا نرسل المراسلين الشباب اكثر من النساء فيما اقتصرت تغطية النساء على مدة قصيرة لا تتجتوز يوما واحدا”.

 

 

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