كوجو الإيزيدية تستعيد رفات 104 من أبنائها

العثور على رفات المغدورين خطوة إيجابية “لكنها مجرد بداية، فهنالك عشرات المقابر الجماعية الأخرى التي تحكي حجم المأساة والإبادة التي تعرض لها الإيزيديون”…

سامان داوود

قرية بأكملها تفتح تراب مقابرها لاستقبال أبنائها الذين تستعيد رفاتهم على دفعات. القرية تدعى كوجو، وهي تابعة لقضاء سنجار (80 كلم غرب الموصل). شهدت في يوم السبت السادس من شباط/ فبراير 2021، مراسم إعادة دفن رفات 104 من أبنائها، قتلهم عناصر تابعون لتنظيم “داعش”، وعثر على رفاتهم في مقبرة جماعية في قضاء سنجار.

احتشد المئات من ذوي الضحايا مع مسؤولين في حكومتي بغداد وإقليم كردستان وممثلين عن منظمات دولية عاملة في العراق في ساحة وسط القرية، كانت مخصصة للمناسبات الاجتماعية قبل عام 2014، ليلقوا النظرة الأخيرة على 104 توابيت ملفوفة بالعلم العراقي، في إشارة واضحة إلى تمسك الإيزيديين بعراقيتهم على رغم ما تعرضوا له.

وفي المكان ذاته، تم حفر 517 قبراً ووضعت شواخص تحمل أسماء الضحايا، تعبيراً من أهالي القرية عن انتظارهم وصول رفات ضحايا آخرين لم يعثر على جثثهم بعد، ودعوة ضمنية للجهات الرسمية للعمل من أجل الفتح مزيد من المقابر الجماعية.

وبلغ عدد ضحايا قرية كوجو جراء غزو “داعش” قضاء سنجار في الثالث من آب/ أغسطس 1030 قتيلاً بين رجال ونساء، وما زال مصير 2500 إيزيدي من عموم سنجار مجهولاً، معظمهم نساءٌ وأطفال.

وبحسب إحصاءات مديرية شؤون الإيزيديين التابعة لوزارة الأوقاف والشؤون الدينية في حكومة إقليم كردستان، فإن 2293 شخصاً من المكون الإيزيدي قتلوا على أيدي مسلحي “داعش”، ودفنوا في 80 مقبرة جماعية ضمن حدود قضاء سنجار.

 

سنوات من الانتظار

في آذار/ مارس 2019 فتحت أولى هذه المقابر بقرار من الحكومة العراقية. وبلغ مجموع الرفات التي انتشلت من 20 مقبرة جماعية حتى الآن حوالى 500.

وكانت مراسم تشييع قد أجريت للضحايا الـ104 قبلها بيومين في نصب الشهيد في العاصمة بغداد، بحضور رسمي كبير تمثل بالرئيس العراقي برهم صالح ورئيس الحكومة مصطفى الكاظمي ووزراء ونواب وممثلي أحزاب. وذلك بعد التأكد من هويات أصحابها في دائرة الطب العدلي في العاصمة، ثم أعيدت إلى سنجار لدفنها مجدداً.

الناشطة الإيزيدية الحاصلة على جائزة نوبل للسلام عام 2016، نادية مراد، تعبّر عن حزنها العميق والمتواصل بسبب هذه المأساة. وتقول إن من بين القتلى اثنين من أشقائها وأصدقاء لها وجيران، وأنها تحتاج بشكل ملح أن تعرف هويات بقية الرفات التي تم اخراجها، فقد تعود إحداها لوالدتها.

وتدعو مراد التي شهدت مأساة قرية كوجو بعينيها وهي واحدة من ضحايا السبي والناجيات منه، إلى التعجيل بفتح المقابر الجماعية المتبقية مؤكدة أن العشرات منها موجودة في سنجار، ما زالت تنتظر الحكومة لفتحها والإعلان عن هويات الضحايا المدفونين فيها.

وخلال لقائه مراد قبل أيام، شدد رئيس الوزراء مصطفى الكاظمي على أهمية دور المواطنين الإيزيديين في إعادة إعمار مناطقهم التاريخية، لا سيما بعد العودة المتتالية الأخيرة من المناطق التي نزحوا إليها.

وقال الكاظمي، إن الحكومة “لا تدخر جهداً في سبيل تسهيل هذه العودة، وتوفير أسباب الاستقرار لها، وإن الجهود تنصب حالياً على دعم إعادة الإعمار وتشغيل مشاريع المياه وبناء المدارس والخدمات الطبية بصورة أساسية لجميع المناطق التي دمّرها الإرهاب”.

مواقف دولية

السفير الأميركي في العراق ماثيو تولر، أكد في بيان مواصلة الجهود “لضمان ألا تتكرر هذه الفظائع مرة أخرى”، مجدداً “التزامنا بالوقوف إلى جانب الشعب الايزيدي في العراق”.

بينما أكد المستشار الخاص كريم خان رئيس فريق التحقيق الأممي “يونيتاد” في حديثه لعائلات الضحايا الإيزيديين الذين التقاهم خلال مراسم التشييع في بغداد أن عودة الرفات التي تم التعرف إليها هي جزء من الجهود الأخرى لإحقاق المساءلة، وأن فريقه ملتزم بالمساعدة في محاكمة عناصر تنظيم “داعش” على الفظائع المرتكبة ضد الإيزيديين والعراقيين جميعاً.

الناجية الإيزيدية ليلى تعلو رأت في التشييع والحضور الرسمي أمراً مهماً وذات تأثير إيجابي، إنساني بالدرجة الأولى، ما سيساهم في كسب مزيد من التعاطف مع القضية الإيزيدية.

“هؤلاء الضحايا لم يؤذوا أحداً ولم يقتلوا أحداً. لقد قُتلوا فقط لأنهم إيزيديون”.

وأظهرت المراسم التي ترافقت مع إعادة دفن رفات الضحايا، بحسب تعلو، حجم الجرائم التي ارتكبها تنظيم “داعش”، والتي يعيش الإيزيديين تحت وطأتها حتى هذه اللحظة، لكون مناطقهم ما زالت مدمرة ومعظمهم ما زالوا يعيشون أوضاعاً صعبة في المخيمات التي نزحوا إليها منذ أكثر من 6 سنوات: “رفع الرفات والتعرف إلى هويات أصحابها ودفنها بحسب التقاليد الدينية الإيزيدية مهم من الناحيتين الوجدانية والقانونية”، تقول تعلو.

الناشط الإيزيدي مراد اسماعيل رأى في الاهتمام الرسمي بالعثور على رفات المغدورين خطوة إيجابية “لكنها مجرد بداية، فهنالك عشرات المقابر الجماعية الأخرى التي تحكي حجم المأساة والإبادة التي تعرض لها الإيزيديون” على حد تعبيره. ويتابع: “الإيزيديون قوم مسالمون، وهؤلاء الضحايا لم يؤذوا أحداً ولم يقتلوا أحداً. لقد قُتلوا فقط لأنهم إيزيديون”.

أما بركات عيسى وهو صحافي إيزيدي فقد دعا الحكومة إلى عدم اقتصار دعمها الإيزيديين على الجانب الرمزي فقط، وإنما أن تقدم على خطوات حقيقية على الأرض لتسوية الملف الأمني في سنجار بشكل نهائي والتخلص من المسلحين والمظاهر المسلحة خارج نطاق الدولة، عبر دمج الميليشيات في صفوف الجيش والشرطة، لأنهم أبناء المدينة وهدف كثيرين منهم إعالة عائلاتهم والبحث عن لقمة العيش. وينصح بركات بإعطاء الملف الأمني للإيزيديين أنفسهم، “لطمأنة الإيزيديين الآخرين الذين يعيشون في المخيمات للعودة إلى المناطق التي يوفر فيها أبناؤهم الأمن لها، ولتخليصهم من سطوة الأحزاب والعشائر”، داعياً إلى التعويض على المتضررين ليعيدوا إعمار مناطقهم المدمرة، فضلاً عن التعويض مادياً على ذوي الضحايا.

أنجز التقرير بدعم من مؤسسة نيريج للتحقيقات الاستقصائية 

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