الخوف من الفساد يعطّل اعمار المدن المحررة

وضعت الحرب على داعش اوزارها منذ عامين وما زالت المدن المحررة من داعش بلا اعمار، المئات من مشاريع الطاقة والمياه والصرف الصحي خارجة عن الخدمة، ورغم اقرار البرلمان العراقي موازنة هي الاعلى منذ العام 2014 الا ان خشية الحكومة من الفساد تجعلها مترددة في اطلاق الاموال.

ينبهر الزائر الى مدن الموصل والانبار وصلاح الدين للوهلة الاولى بأضواء الاسواق الناصعة والعشرات من المطاعم الفخمة والمراكز التجارية الضخمة معتقدا ان هذه المدن التي خرجت من حرب مدمرة ضد تنظيم “داعش” تنهض من جديد، وهذه المظاهر ساهمت فعلا في اعادة الحياة الى هذه المدن، الا ان مشاريع البنى التحتية من الكهرباء والماء والمستشفيات والمباني المدمرة والطرق المكسرة ما زالت على حالها.

وتقع مهمة اعادة بناء البنى التحتية على عاتق الحكومة الاتحادية ومجالس هذه المحافظات، الا ان الخوف من الفساد يجعل الحكومة مترددة في صرف الاموال، خصوصا وان هذه المدن تخضع لصراعات سياسية على المناصب والاستفادة منها في الحصول على اموال تذهب عمليا الى جيوب المسؤولين الفاسدين.

ولكن المشكلة الاخرى تكمن في الحصص التي منحتها الحكومة الاتحادية لهذه المحافظات من اجل الاعمار، وهي مبالغ قليلة لا تتناسب مع حاجة هذه المدن، ومثلا فان اعمار الموصل يتطلب وفق تقديرات الامم المتحدة ومنظمات دولية نحو ملياري دولار، بينما بلغت حصة الموصل في الموازنة للعام 2019 (250) مليون دولار فقط.

اما حصة الانبار بلغت (150) مليون دولار فقط، ونسبة صلاح الدين (170) مليون دولار، وتحتاج هاتين المدينتين على نحو مليار دولار لاعادة اعمارها.

بيروقراطية المؤسسات العراقية بطيئة وتبطأ عملية اعادة الاعمار، وبرغم اقرار الموازنة العام للعام الحالي في كانون الثاني (يناير) الماضي، ولكن حتى الان لم ترسل الحكومة اموال الموازنة الى المحافظات حتى الان، وغالبا ما يتم اطلاقها في ايار (مايو) من كل عام، ما يعني ان امام مجالس المحافظات صرف هذه الموال خلال سبعة اشهر والا فانها تعود الى خزينة الدولة في نهاية العام، وهي ثغرة خطيرة تفتح الباب امام الفساد، اذ تدفع المسؤلين المحليين الى تقديم وثائق مزورة لمشاريع وهمية الى الحكومة بمبالغ طائلة.

ويقول النائب عن تحالف “سائرون” صادق السليطي ” إن “الموازنة تم اقرارها قبل اكثر من شهر، ودخلنا في الشهر الثالث ولم يتم بالمباشرة بأي عمل على الخطة الاستثمارية للعام الحالي، هذا التأخير سيتسبب بعدم اكمال اغلب المشاريع قبل موسم الصيف”

تخشى الحكومة الاتحادية من الفساد خصوصا في المحافظات المحررة التي تشهد صراعات كبيرة بين اقطاب متنافسة داخل مجالس المحافظات وتتبادل الاتهامات فيما بينها في نطاق تنافس من اجل مناصب ومواقع مؤثرة في عملية صرف الاموال والحصول على عقود اعما

الاحزاب الخاسرة في هذه المحافظات تطعن بشرعية القوى السياسية القابضة على شؤون مجالس هذه المحافظات بسبب انتهاء فترة ولايتها منذ عامين، اذ لم تشهد هذه المدن وكذلك باقي المحافظات العراقية انتخابات محلية منذ العام 2013، بينما تسعى الاحزاب المسيطرة على المناصب العليا من المحافظين ورؤساء المجالس الحفاظ على مواقعها بأي ثمن.

ولكن السؤال المهم، من الذي يقود عملية الاعمار الحاصلة في هذه المدن، وهي تقتصر على مشاريع تجارية ربحية الى جانب مشاريع لبنى تحتية محدودة يتبين انها ايضا ربحية في نهاية المطاف.

يبدو ان تباطأ الحكومة الاتحادية في الشروع في عملية الاعمار فتح الباب امام شركات ورجال اعمال ومستثمرين صغار مرتبطين بجهات سياسية وفصائل مسلحة وشيوخ عشائر متنفذين للقيام بهذه المهمة، ولكن بطريقة سيئة ويدفع اجورها المواطنين.

العشرات من الاسواق التجارية الضخمة والمطاعم ظهرت بسرعة في مدن الموصل وتكريت والرمادي والفلوجة وغيرها من المدن المحررة، وساهمت هذه المظاهر العامة فعلا في اعادة الحياة الى هذه المدن، ولكن بعد اشهر قليلة بدأت المشاكل الكبيرة بالظهور.

وعادة ما تجد سوق تجاري كبير او مطعم فخم تتكوّم على بعد امتار قليلة منه الازبال والشوراع المكسرة والمنازل المهدمة التي لا تجد احد من يقوم باصلاحها لكونها من مهام الجهات الحكومية.

وبينما تحتاج مثل هذه المشاريع التجارية المتنامية الى مستوى معيشي جيد للسكان، بدأت مشاكل البطالة تتصاعد في هذه المدن، مع تزايد اعداد الشباب الخريجين من الجامعات والكليات، وخسارة الكثير من سكان هذه المدن لمشاريعهم الخاصة وروؤس اموالهم.

ولم يبق امامهم سوى ملاحقة الوظيفة الحكومية، بينما لم يعد بمقدور الحكومة توفير فرص العمل في مؤسساتها كما كان الحال قبل العام 2014 بعد انهيار اسعار النفط وارتفاع ديون العراق بسبب تكاليف الحرب الباهضة على داعش.

مؤخرا بدأت شركات خاصة ومستثمرين عرض خدماتهم الى مواطني هذه المدن لاعادة اعمار البنى التحتية، ولكن المواطن هو من يتحمل تكاليفها المالية الباهضة.

في “البكر” وهو احد احياء الرمادي مركز الانبار يكابد سكانه الكثير من اجل العودة الى منازلهم، عادت العشرات من العائلات الى منازلها رغم انعدام المياه والكهرباء، وهو افضل من البقاء في مخيمات كما يقول عبد المجيد الدليمي.

ويقول الدليمي، “كان من المفترض ان نحصل على تعويضات من الكومة لبناء منازلنا، انتظرنا اشهر حتى قررنا بنائها بانفسنا، بينما بدأت شركات خاصة تطرق ابوابنا لعرض خدماتهم في اعادة اصلاح الشوارع وايصال مياه الشرب والكهرباء، ولكن نحن من يتحمل اجورها”.

الدليمي يقول ان هذه الشركات تقوم بمهام الحكومة، ولكنها ترفض علينا دفع اجور عالية لاصلاح اعمدة الطاقة، انها خطوة جيدة، ولكن تفاجئنا بعد اسابيع قليلة عن عطل هذه الاعمدة لان هذه الشركات تقوم بعمليات ترميم بطريقة سيئة بهدف الحصول على الاموال، لا احد يراقب عمل هذه الشركات الخاصة وهي في الغالب مملوكة الى اشخاص متنفذين، قد يكونون سياسيين او شيوخ عشائر او فصائل مسلحة تتقاسم النفوذ في المناطق”.

ويشير العديد من سكان الموصل والانبار الى عمليات اعمار مهمة شهدتها المدينة من قبل الامم المتحدة ومنظمات دولية شملت مستشفيات وطرق وجسور، ولكنهم يقولون انها محدودة ولا تغطي حجم الدمار الهائل في هذه المدن.

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