صانع الفخار على شط الكوفة: “أشعر هنا بحريتي”

المنصة- حوراء راضي

محسن الكواز “أبو مسلم”، أحد صُناع الفخار في شط الكوفة، ذلك المنخفض الشهير على نهر الفرات، والذي يمثّل قيمة خاصة لصانعي الفخار ولأهالي محافظة النجف.

عندما زرناه في مشغله الذي يبدو أشبه بمعرض للتحف والصناعات التقليدية، كان يعرض للزبائن أشكال مختلفة من الأواني والقدور ويشرح بالتفصيل طريقة استخدام كل واحدة منها، فبعضها مخصص للطبخ وبعضها يستخدم في حفظ المياه، وجزء ثالث للزينة. 

مساحة للإبداع

ينتمي أبو مسلم إلى عائلة “الكواز” النجفية المعروفة بصناعة الفخار، وقد اختار الرجل الخمسيني موقع ورشته في شط الكوفة على نهر الفرات، أحد أشهر المعالم الطبيعية والسياحية في النجف ويعتبره الأهالي متنفساً لهم يقضون فيه أوقات العطل بعيداً عن ضوضاء المدينة.

وبالنسبة له فإن “الطين المستخرج من شط الكوفة هو من أجود أنواع الطين المناسب لصنع الفخار، وقد استخدمه أجدادنا السومريين قبل آلاف السنين وما زالت قطع منه معروضة في متاحف العراق والعالم”.

ولصانع الفخار هذا تاريخ طويل مع مهنته، فقد تعلمها من والده وتعلق بها منذ كان صغيراً. يقول: “كنت وما زلت أحب رائحة الطين الحر.. وصوت الآلة بالنسبة لي يشبه صوت الموسيقى”. 

وعلى الرغم من حصوله على شهادة جامعية إلا أنه فضل البقاء في مهنته “فالوظيفة الحكومية بالنسبة لي سجن يقتل الإبداع.. بينما أشعر هنا بحريتي وبأني قادر خلق أشكال جديدة”.

ولشدة تعلقه بالمهنة، يحرص أبو مسلم على تعليم ولده الصغير كافة أسرارها، “سأعلمه كل شيء وأترك له الخيار في المستقبل.. أن يكمل بها أو أن يلتحق بعمل آخر”، يقول.

يوم من أيام العمل

يستيقظ ابو مسلم فجرٱ هو وولده مسلم البالغ من العمر خمسة عشر عاماً لينطلقا لمكان عملهما حاملين معهما فطورهما البسيط. يضع أبو مسلم ابريق الشاي على طباخ صغير، ويتناولا وجبة الفطور قبل أن يبدأ الزبائن بالتجمع أمام باب المحل. 

يتحرك مسلم بجسد نحيل ناقلاً الأواني الفخارية إلى واجهة المحل في الخارج، ينظف بعضها من بقايا الغبار المتجمع، ثم يتجه نحو أحد الزبائن يشرح له مواصفات إحدى القطع ويتفاوض معه على سعر مناسب للطرفين.  

في هذه الأثناء تصل سيارة محملة بأكياس الطين الذي أوصى أبو مسلم بجلبه من “بحر النجف” أو شط الكوفة، ينقله إلى داخل المشغل بمساعدة ولده ورجل آخر، ثم يجلس خلف آلته ويبدأ بتشكيل قطعة فخارية تبدو كجرة ماء، يزخرفها من الخارج بواسطة سكين، ينقلها إلى الفرن، وينتقل لصنع المزيد من الأواني بحرفيه عالية.

سعادة كبيرة

ليست كل القطع سريعة الإنجاز فبضعها بحسب أبو مسلم يستغرق صنعه عدة أيام، كصناعة تنور الخبز الفخاري، الذي تشتهر به مدينة الكوفة.

 

 

يوزع أبو مسلم وقته بين صنع الأواني الفخارية وبين بيعها. ولا يبدو عليه التعب او الإرهاق إلا حين يقترب من الفرن ذو درجات الحرارة العالية، عندها يبدأ جبينه بالتصبب عرقاً وتبدأ أنفاسه بالتقطع.  

ويكاد لا يخلو يوم من أيام عمل هذا الرجل من زيارة وفود سياحية تأتي من محافظات عراقية أخرى، يشترون بعض القطع الفخارية ويلتقطون صوراً تذكارية معه ومع ولده، خصوصاً أن هذه الصناعة موروث شعبي عراقي يعود لزمن السومريين. 

وعن أكثر ما يسعده في هذه المهنة يقول “أشعر ببهجة كبيرة عندما أنهي عملي ويكون جاهزاً للبيع.. لكني أشهر بسعادة أكبر عندما أزور أحد معارفي وأرى قطعة فخارية صنعتها يداي قبل سنوات طويلة موجودة في منزله وما زالت تحتفظ بجودتها وجمالها”. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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