لماذا يفضلون الخيمة على المنزل؟

انتهت الحرب ولم تنته مشكلة النزوح العويصة، لا يمكن لأعظم موجة نزوح في تاريخ العراق الحديث حدثت إثر سيطرة تنظيم “داعش” على الموصل في حزيران/ يونيو 2014، أن تنتهي سريعا، من غير المعقول، لا سيما وان الحرب خلفت وراءها مدنا مدمرة بالكامل، ونموذج المدينة القديمة بالموصل دليل لذلك.

5.5 ملايين إنسان فروا من محافظات نينوى وصلاح الدين والانبار وجزءا من كركوك وديالى، انتهت بهم الحال الى المخيمات والمدن العراقية الأخرى التي لم يسيطر عليها “داعش”، خاصة إقليم كردستان العراق (أربيل ودهوك والسليمانية).

لقد كان لمحافظة نينوى حصة الأسد من هذا النزوح داخليا وخارجيا، أكثر من 1.7 مليون مواطن نزحوا أو هاجروا خارج البلاد من مختلف المكونات، وبعد مرور عام على تحرير المحافظة بالكامل من قبضة داعش ما يزال هناك نحو 381 نازحا في المخيمات، بحسب ما أكد المجلس النرويجي لشؤون اللاجئين.

وبين التقرير الذي نشر في تموز الجاري ان 8 ملايين طن من الحطام تعيق عودة النازحين، فضلا عن عدم الاستقرار الأمني والسياسي في كثير من المناطق خاصة سنجار وسهل نينوى.

النازحون يتوزعون الان بين 39 مخيما، 7 في أربيل، و22 في محافظة دهوك غالبيتهم من الأيزيديين، و10 في جنوب الموصل، إضافة الى مئات آلاف النازحين ما زالوا في مدن عراقية أخرى، والمئات عالقون في مخيمات داخل الاراضي السورية.

فكرة العودة ليست سهلة في ظل وجود ٥٤ ألف وحدة سكنية مدمرة كليا أو جزئيا، جراء العمليات العسكرية التي شهدتها الموصل منذ تشرين الأول/ أكتوبر 2016 وحتى تموز / يوليو 2017 حسب احصائية المجلس النرويجي للاجئين.

بالتالي فإن تقديرات تكاليف إعادة إعمار الخدمات الاساسية في الموصل تصل الى نحو ٨٧٤ مليون دولار.

هناك مفارقة، إن توفر المواد الغذائية الاساسية والعيادات الصحية والمدارس المؤقتة في المخيمات يشجع الكثير من سكان القرى التي تفتقر لهذه المميزات على البقاء في المخيمات، خاصة ونحن نتحدث عن نحو ٧٠ ألف نازح يعيشون في مخيمات تقع شرق الموصل وتعد الافضل من بين المخيمات الاخرى وهو ما شجع عودة اكثر من الفي عائلة إليها مرة اخرى بعد خروجهم منها (عودة عكسية!).

يقول بوتان صلاح مدير مخيم حسن شام ان المخيمات امتلأت مرة اخرى بالنازحين الذين فضلوا العودة بسبب انعدام الخدمات.

القلق الأمني في قضاء سنجار (110 كم غرب الموصل) والنقص الكبير في الخدمات الأساسية سيما في قطاعي الصحة والتعليم، حال دون عودة نحو ١٥٠ ألف نازح الغالبية الساحقة منهم من الايزيديين.

عدم عودة النازحين الى مناطقهم، يعني تدوير مخلفات الحرب والمشاكل السياسية والإدارية والاجتماعية ومشاكل التعايش بين المكونات في نينوى، أحدهم يقول إن المخيمات تصنع مجتمعا تنبلا، لأن اغلب سكان المخيمات عاطلون عن العمل ويعيشون على ما يقدم لهم من مساعدات يومية، من الجهات الحكومية والمنظمات الإنسانية.

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