“المضايف السومرية” طراز معماري فريد في جنوب العراق

ذي قار – علي الناصري

بين القرى العائمة على المياه في أهوار جنوب العراق تنتشر المضايف السومرية المصنوعة من القصب والتي تتسم بطراز معماري فريد توارثه سكانها من السومريين القدماء، إذ تؤكد الرقم الطينية التي عثر عليها في تلك المنطقة ان صور تلك المضايف ظهرت على اختام اسطوانية تعود الى أكثر من ثلاثة آلاف عام.

وعلى وقع الاهازيج والقصائد الشعبية تنتخي العشيرة الجنوبية لبناء مضيفها السومري من القصب والحصران والحبال ليكون عنوانا لقبيلتهم بمشاركة العشرات من الرجال الاشداء في مراحل البناء التي تتراوح بين اسبوع واسبوعين حسب حجم المضيف.

بناء تلك الأماكن التي تستقبل رجال القبيلة وضيوفها يحتاج الى مهارة وخبرة كبيرتين وهناك متخصصين بهذا النوع من الفن المعماري يطلق عليهم السكان المحليين تسمية “الاسطوات”.

الحاج عباس شاكر رجل ستيني وهو احد الاسطوات المعروفين ببناء هذا الطراز في محافظة ذي قار جنوب العراق  وله من الخبرة ثلاثة عقود من الزمن يقول ان مراحل البناء تبدأ من إقامة (الشبَة)  التي تمثل ركائز البناء وغالباً ما تكون بعدد فردي بحسب التقاليد السارية فاصغر المضايف يتكون من سبعة ( ِشباب ) وأكبرها من واحد وعشرون شبة.

ويشير الحاج عباس الى ان العمل يبدأ من توزيع ركائز القصب (الِشباب) من قبل رجال العشيرة المساعدين له وتثبيتها وتغطيتها بحصائر القصب وشدها بحبال شديدة مصنوعة لهذا الغرض لتكون مكانا لجلوس القبيلة وافرادها وضيوفها يتحمل الظروف الجوية المتقلبة بمتانته رغم بساطة المواد الأولية المستخدمة في تشييده.

بناء المضيف السومري يعود الى حضارة السومريين بناة  العراق القديم  ويتخذ شكل السفينة المقلوبة ويتكون من اعمدة فردية تحمل رمزية الوحدانية انتشر بناءه في جنوب العراق منذ آلاف السنين ويتركز في مناطق الاهوار والقبائل المتوزعة في جميع مناطق محافظة ذي قار وبعض المدن المجاورة.

الباحث التاريخي مرتضى الحدود يقول ان المضيف له رمزية اجتماعية لوحدة القبيلة كونه يمثل مركز القرار من خلال تجمع افراد القبيلة يوميا في هذا المكان صباحا ومساءا حتى ساعات متأخرة من الليل حيث النقاشات والحديث في مختلف الشؤون ويشكل مدرسة حقيقية للرجولة وفنون الحياة وعادة ما يصف ابناء العشائر هذه التجمعات داخل المضيف بـ (المجالس).

الشيخ علي جاسم (50 عاماً) وهو احد شيوخ افخاذ قبيلة آلزيرج يقول ان المضيف ضرورة كبرى للعشيرة فهو مجلس اللقاء الموسع وقبلة الضيوف وديوان الكرم ومجلس النخوة وحل المشكلات وحسم الخلافات بين الناس فهو يلعب دور “المحكمة” والشيخ بمثابة “القاضي” حينما تنشب الخلافات بين أبناء القبيلة الواحدة او بين شخصين من قبيلتين مختلفتين.

ويشير الى ان المضيف اليوم يمثل رمزا مهما للعشيرة وفيه ساعات القهوة المعروفة حيث يتوافد الرجال صباحا ومساءا لتبادل الآراء والافكار وآخر المستجدات وصياغة القرارات التي تخدم القبيلة وافرادها والجميع ملزم بها من دون مخالفة لها لأنها تُتخذ بمشورة الحاضرين.

المضايف السومرية لازالت تحتفظ بتقاليد خاصة اختفت معظمها لدى باقي العشائر، وهناك آداب عامة يتوجب الالتزام بها عند الدخول ال المضيف والمشاركة في النقاشات.

منشد والي (57 عاماً) ع احد سكان منطقة العكيكة جنوب مدينة الناصرية يقول ان الحضور الى ديوان المضيف له ضوابط يجب ان يلتزم بها كل شخص ومنها السلام على الجميع والجلوس في المكان المحدد واحتساء فنجان القهوة باليد اليمنى وعدم الخوض بالحديث مالم يسمح له بذلك إذ تعد تعوض المضايف عن المدارس فيما يتعلق بتعلم الأدب في التخاطب والحديث.

محافظة ذي قار احدى مدن جنوب العراق تحتضن اكثر من 500 مضيف سومري يمثل الوان مختلفة من القبائل العربية والتي تتفرع الى اقسام معظمها متصاهره وتربطها اواصر القرابة والتكاتف فيما بينها .

مقالات ذات صلة

‫136 تعليقات

  1. Amazing! This blog looks just like my old one! It’s on a completely different topic but it has pretty much the
    same layout and design. Excellent choice of colors!

  2. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you’ve put in writing this website.
    I am hoping the same high-grade site post from you in the upcoming as well.
    In fact your creative writing skills has encouraged me to get
    my own website now. Really the blogging is spreading its
    wings rapidly. Your write up is a great example of it.

    Also visit my web site; http://www.goldenanapa.ru/modules.php?name=Your_Account&op=userinfo&username=BlesingBessie

  3. Hey There. I found your blog the usage of msn. That is a very neatly written article.

    I will make sure to bookmark it and return to learn extra of your helpful info.
    Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly return.

    My page: motofon.net

  4. You actually make it seem really easy along with
    your presentation but I to find this matter to be really one thing which
    I feel I might never understand. It sort
    of feels too complicated and extremely vast for me.
    I am having a look ahead on your next submit, I will attempt to
    get the dangle of it!

    Also visit my page – mpc-install.com

  5. Do you mind if I quote a few of your articles as long as I provide credit and sources back
    to your webpage? My blog site is in the very same niche
    as yours and my visitors would really benefit from a lot
    of the information you present here. Please let me know if this alright with
    you. Thank you!

    Check out my web-site … https://www.qiurom.com

  6. Hello just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The words in your article seem to be running off the screen in Chrome.
    I’m not sure if this is a formatting issue or something to
    do with browser compatibility but I thought I’d post to let you know.
    The layout look great though! Hope you get the problem
    fixed soon. Cheers

    Also visit my homepage … kebe.top

  7. I don’t even understand how I stopped up right here,
    but I assumed this post was good. I do not realize who you might be however definitely
    you’re going to a well-known blogger for those who aren’t already.
    Cheers!

    My web site: clubriders.men

  8. Wonderful beat ! I wish to apprentice whilst you amend your website, how can i subscribe for a blog website?
    The account helped me a appropriate deal. I were a little bit familiar
    of this your broadcast offered vivid transparent idea

    my webpage: hotelforrest.ru

  9. I was suggested this website by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as no one else know such detailed about
    my problem. You’re incredible! Thanks!

  10. I wish to voice my appreciation for your kind-heartedness supporting people who really want assistance with this one
    study. Your very own commitment to getting the solution all-around had been rather effective and
    have constantly encouraged ladies much like me to arrive at their
    ambitions. Your new warm and friendly tutorial indicates this much a
    person like me and still more to my peers. Regards; from each one of us.

    Feel free to surf to my site … haojiafu.net

  11. I would like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this site.

    I am hoping the same high-grade site post from you
    in the upcoming as well. Actually your creative writing abilities has encouraged me to get
    my own site now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings fast.

    Your write up is a great example of it.

    Check out my web site – mpc-install.com

  12. Greetings from Ohio! I’m bored to death at work
    so I decided to check out your website on my iphone during lunch break.
    I really like the information you provide here and
    can’t wait to take a look when I get home. I’m amazed at how quick your blog loaded on my cell phone ..
    I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyways, excellent blog!

    Have a look at my homepage :: https://kebe.top/viewtopic.php?id=1737986

  13. Hey there! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a group of volunteers and starting a new initiative in a community in the same niche.
    Your blog provided us beneficial information to work on. You have done a extraordinary job!

    Visit my web-site :: Lilla

  14. Excellent post. I was checking continuously this blog and I am inspired!
    Very helpful info specially the closing section 🙂 I maintain such information a lot.
    I used to be seeking this particular info for a long time.
    Thank you and best of luck.

    Look at my site … Rae

  15. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your site and in accession capital to
    assert that I acquire actually enjoyed account your blog posts.
    Any way I’ll be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you access
    consistently rapidly.

    Feel free to surf to my blog post … shihan.com.ru

  16. You actually make it appear so easy together with your presentation however I in finding this matter to
    be actually one thing that I feel I would never
    understand. It kind of feels too complex and extremely large for me.
    I’m having a look forward for your next post,
    I’ll try to get the cling of it!

    my web blog … mpc-install.com

  17. I’d been honored to get a call coming from a friend immediately he
    discovered the important suggestions shared on your site.
    Studying your blog article is a real great experience.
    Many thanks for considering readers like me, and I would like
    for you the best of success as a professional in this area.

    my site :: Monika

  18. Sweet blog! I found it while browsing on Yahoo News.
    Do you have any tips on how to get listed in Yahoo News?
    I’ve been trying for a while but I never seem to get there!
    Thanks

    Also visit my page – kebe.top

  19. Thank you for your blog post. Jones and I are
    saving to buy a new book on this subject matter and your article has made us all to save
    money. Your thoughts really answered all our inquiries. In fact,
    above what we had acknowledged ahead of the time we came upon your great blog.
    My partner and i no longer nurture doubts and also a troubled mind because you
    have attended to our own needs in this post. Thanks

    my web-site; http://www.atomy123.com

  20. Undeniably consider that which you stated. Your favorite reason appeared to be at the web the simplest thing to
    take into accout of. I say to you, I certainly get irked while
    other folks consider concerns that they plainly don’t know about.
    You controlled to hit the nail upon the highest and
    also outlined out the entire thing with no need side effect , other people can take a signal.

    Will likely be again to get more. Thanks!

    my blog: clubriders.men

  21. You really make it appear so easy with your presentation however I find this topic to be really one
    thing which I believe I would never understand. It kind of feels too complicated and very broad for me.
    I’m looking forward on your subsequent submit, I will
    attempt to get the grasp of it!

    My web blog: kebe.top

  22. Can I just say what a relief to uncover a person that truly understands what they are
    talking about online. You actually know how to bring an issue to light and make it important.

    A lot more people have to read this and understand this side of the story.
    I can’t believe you are not more popular because
    you most certainly have the gift.

    Also visit my site http://www.eqt8.cn/

  23. Nice post. I was checking continuously this weblog and I’m inspired!
    Extremely useful information specially the
    final part 🙂 I deal with such information a lot.
    I used to be looking for this particular information for a long time.
    Thank you and good luck.

    Here is my web-site – shihan.com.ru

  24. Thank you for your website post. Thomas and I are saving for just a new guide on this subject and
    your writing has made all of us to save all of our money.
    Your opinions really solved all our inquiries. In fact,
    a lot more than what we had known in advance of the time
    we ran into your superb blog. My spouse and i
    no longer have doubts plus a troubled mind because you have attended to all of our needs
    right here. Thanks

    Review my site http://www.matong13.com

  25. We are a group of volunteers and starting a brand new scheme
    in our community. Your site provided us with useful
    info to work on. You’ve done an impressive job and
    our whole group will probably be thankful to you.

    Look into my web blog – kebe.top

  26. I’m extremely impressed with your writing skills as
    well as with the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself?
    Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice blog like this one nowadays.

    Look at my web-site; clubriders.men

  27. What’s up everyone, it’s my first visit at this web page, and article is actually fruitful designed for me, keep up posting these articles or reviews.

    My site … Jasmin

  28. Thank you so much for providing individuals with remarkably spectacular chance to read critical
    reviews from this website. It’s always so cool and packed with
    a lot of fun for me personally and my office peers to search your blog at the least thrice a week to learn the new secrets you have got.
    And lastly, I’m just always fascinated with your effective tricks you serve.
    Selected 4 tips in this article are easily the finest we have ever had.

    Here is my web-site: kebe.top

  29. I wanted to create you that bit of word in order to give thanks over again for those splendid guidelines you have contributed
    above. It was certainly shockingly open-handed of you to provide easily just what a lot of people could possibly have marketed for
    an e book to make some profit for their own end, particularly since you might have done it if you wanted.
    Those ideas as well worked to be a easy way to be sure that
    most people have the same keenness really like my own to find out a whole lot more when it comes to this problem.
    Certainly there are many more pleasurable situations ahead
    for many who take a look at your site.

    Also visit my blog: https://kebe.top/

  30. An impressive share! I have just forwarded this onto a coworker who had
    been conducting a little homework on this. And he in fact bought
    me lunch simply because I found it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this….
    Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending time
    to talk about this subject here on your website.

    Also visit my web site … mpc-install.com

  31. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your posts as long as I provide credit
    and sources back to your blog? My blog is in the very same area of interest as yours and my users would definitely benefit from some of the information you present here.
    Please let me know if this ok with you. Many
    thanks!

    my website :: http://www.lubertsi.net

  32. Hi are using WordPress for your site platform? I’m new to
    the blog world but I’m trying to get started and set up my own. Do you require any html coding knowledge to make
    your own blog? Any help would be really appreciated!

    Feel free to visit my webpage; https://kebe.top

  33. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know so
    much about this, like you wrote the book in it or something.
    I think that you can do with a few pics to drive the message home a bit, but other than that, this is great blog.

    An excellent read. I’ll certainly be back.

    Feel free to surf to my blog; kebe.top

  34. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you’ve put in writing this site.

    I’m hoping the same high-grade website post from you in the upcoming also.
    In fact your creative writing abilities has encouraged me to get my own website now.
    Actually the blogging is spreading its wings fast.
    Your write up is a good example of it.

    Also visit my web site … http://haojiafu.net/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=836665

  35. I blog frequently and I truly thank you for your information. The article has truly peaked
    my interest. I’m going to take a note of your website and keep checking for new details about once per week.
    I opted in for your Feed as well.

    Visit my blog :: Jade

  36. I have been exploring for a little bit for any
    high-quality articles or weblog posts in this sort of house .
    Exploring in Yahoo I finally stumbled upon this website.
    Reading this info So i am glad to convey that I have a very good uncanny feeling I came upon exactly what I
    needed. I most indisputably will make certain to do not forget this site and provides it a glance on a relentless basis.

    my web page; https://kebe.top

  37. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your articles as long as I provide credit and sources back to your blog?
    My blog is in the very same niche as yours and my visitors would
    certainly benefit from some of the information you present here.
    Please let me know if this alright with you. Thanks!

    Feel free to visit my webpage – chengdian.cc

  38. First of all I want to say great blog! I had a quick question in which I’d like to ask if you do not mind.
    I was curious to find out how you center yourself and clear your thoughts
    before writing. I have had a difficult time clearing my mind in getting my ideas out.
    I truly do enjoy writing but it just seems like the first 10
    to 15 minutes are usually wasted simply just trying to figure
    out how to begin. Any ideas or tips? Appreciate it!

    Here is my web site; mpc-install.com

  39. Excellent weblog right here! Additionally your site rather
    a lot up fast! What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate hyperlink in your host?
    I want my website loaded up as quickly as yours lol.

    my web blog: chengdian.cc

  40. I must thank you for the efforts you have put in penning this site.
    I am hoping to check out the same high-grade content from you later on as well.

    In truth, your creative writing abilities has encouraged me to get my very own blog now 😉

    Here is my web-site … kebe.top

  41. Pretty element of content. I just stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to claim
    that I acquire actually enjoyed account your weblog posts.
    Any way I’ll be subscribing on your feeds and even I success you get admission to consistently
    quickly.

    Feel free to surf to my site http://www.in-almelo.com

اترك تعليقاً

لن يتم نشر عنوان بريدك الإلكتروني.

زر الذهاب إلى الأعلى